In 1954, Italian photographer Fosco Maraini took a small film crew to Hekura Hegura-jima, a small Japanese island famous for its female pearl divers. His photographs, which were later published in a book titled l'Isola delle Pescatrici (The Isle of Fisherwoman), documented daily life on the island and the divers in, under, and around the water. 

Maraini also spent a significant amount of time photographing the Hindu Kush mountain ranges of Central Asia, in Southeast Asia and the southern regions of Italy. An anthropologist and enthnographer, Maraini fought to strengthen the ties between Japan and Italy. After the Italians signed an armistice with the allies in WWII, the Japanese authorities asked him and his wife to sign an act of allegiance to Mussolini's puppet, the Republic of Salo. They refused and were interned with their daughters in a concentration camp  at Nagoya for two years. They eventually retreated to Italy after the Americans occupied Japan.